Study Guide for Lab Tests


Microscopes and Cells:

Know the parts of the microscopes and how they are used

Be able to explain how light microscopes work and how electron microscopes work

Be able to calculate magnification rates

Know the names of organelles and what they are used for in cells



Know what a dichotymous key is.  Be able to construct one

Be able to list at least three things that can prevent a key from effectively identifying a species


Diffusion and Osmosis

Be able to define the terms diffusion, osmosis, crenation, plasmolysis, and turgor pressure.

Be able to explain what concentration gradients are and how they affect diffusion .  How do they affect osmosis?

How do temperature, particle size and molecule size affect rates of diffusion


Biological molecules

Be able to describe what biuretís solution, benedictís solution, sudan stains and indophenols test for.

For each, be able to explain how to conduct a test, and what a positive result would look like.



Be able to define the terms enzyme, substrate, active site, inhibitor

Be able to explain how temperature, pH and concentration affect enzyme activity.

be able to identify the substrates and products in the reactions of this lab



what gas is released during respiration?

what gas is taken in during respiration?

do animals respire? do plants respire?

what organelle is most important in respiration?

why was baralyme used in this experiment? (i.e. what gas was it absorbing?)

this experiment indirectly measured the use of what gas?

How does temperature affect the respiration rates of crickets?



be able to explain what gasses are taken in and what gasses are released during photosynthesis

Be able to explain what flourescence is, why it occurs, and how this is related to photosynthesis. 

know what color of light chlorophyll emits when in floureseces.

Be able to explain why paper chromatography separates plant pigments. Your answer should include molecule size

Explain how carbon dioxide can alter the pH of a solution


dna puzzle/codon

know the parts of a DNA codon and the parts of an RNA codon

be able to give three ways that DNA and RNA differ

be able to read the codon chart to determine what amino acid should be used in a protein

know the meaning of the terms transcription, translation, template and compliment.

know the roles of RNA polymerase, ribosomes, mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA



know the four phases of mitosis

know what happens to the spindle fibers, nuclear envelope and chromosomes during each of these stages

be able to explain how cytokinesis in plants differs from cytokinesis in animals


transcription & translation

Be able to explain the effects of frame shift mutations and point mutations

which types of mutations can create (or get rid of) start and stop codons?

Which type of mutation is less likely to destroy a protein


Plant Adaptations

Be able to explain three ways that plants can compete for light, giving examples of plants that use each of these methods.

Be able to give examples of methods plants use to shed excess water.

Be able to explain and give several examples of how leaf and stem modifications can help plants conserve water

How do C4 and CAM methods save water

List four kinds of carnivorous plants, what type of nutrients they are trying to get, and what methods they use to trap prey

Be able to list examples of ways plants can protect themselves through physical or chemical traits.

Explain the ways that plants can attract pollenators with scent, food, and mimicry.What types of organisms do they use as pollinators.


Animal Adaptations

Be able to list examples of suspension/filtration feeding in invertebrates, birds, and mammals

Be able to define the terms herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detrivore, and substrate feeder

Be able to give examples of invertebrates and vertebrates that are fluid feeders

Explain some of the skeletal adaptations that are seen in bulk feeders

Describe the structure of snake fangs, and the effects of their venom

Describe the tooth structure of herbivores, carnivores and omnivores

What is a carnassial?  What living animals have the largest ones?

Describe three different types of herbivore digestive systems, and give examples of the animals using them.

Explain the ways that animals can protect themselves with horns/antlers/fangs, protective coverings, coloring, and symbiosis

Be able to give examples of animals using warning coloration, batsian and mullerian mimicry.

What are the most common warning colors