Study Guide for Test 4


1.       Be able to define the following terms:  transgenic, biotechnology, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, chromosomes, gene, genome,

2.       Be able to explain how each one of these tools are used:  plasmid, restriction enzyme, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase

3.       What is cloning?  Be able to explain how cloning is done.  (Hint:  somatic cell nuclear transfer)

4.       What is gel electrophoresis?  How and why is it used?

5.       What is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)?  Where did it come from, and why do scientists use it?

6.       How many nucleotides are in a codon

7.       Know why many mutations are silent (have no effect on the protein)

8.       What are template strands and compliment strands

9.       Explain the relationship between gene activation and cell differentiation

10.   Explain the difference in transcription and translation?  What role do ribosomes play in these processes?

11.   How are DNA and RNA similar?  Know three ways they are different

12.   What are totipotent stem cells?  What are pleuripotent stem cells?