porifera - sponges (pg. 670)

                no tissues, just mix of cells

                spongeoceol - space in middle (think of coelom)

                choanocytes - make current, feeding


cniderians - anenomes, jellyfish, hydra

                capture prey with stinging cells (cnidocytes)

                                stinging portion = nematocyst

                one opening functioning as mouth/anus

                two forms (polyp and medusa)

                most live in salt water (exception: hydra)


                                hydrozoans - hydra

                                                polyp ("sessile")

                                scyphozoans - true jellyfish


                                cubozoans - cube shaped jellyfish


                                                very toxic

                                                austrailian box jelly

                                anthozoans - sea anenomes





                gastrovascular cavity (mouth/anus)

                good at regeneration - planeria


                nasty parasites

                most use multiple hosts

                example: fliver flukes and blood flukes

tape worms


                absorb nutrients

                former diet aid

                segments called proglottids

                                can break off and go off to infect others

                                                full of eggs


                tiny protest sized things.  Important fish food

                full alimentary canal

                                separate mouth and anus

                                tube running through body

                some do parthenogenesis (know definition, know FL  snake that does)



                Gastropod – snails

                                Stomach foot

                                Many have shells

                                                Example:  fl apple snail (snail kite eats)

                                                Example: cone snails

                                Some lack shells

                                                The ones without “slugs”

                                                                Banana Slugs!!!!!!!

                                                                Nudibranchs – marine slugs

                Cephalopod – octopus, squid, cuttlefish, nautilus, argonaut

                                Head food


                                                Water jet, swim, crawl

                                Masters of camouflage


                                Segmented shell

                                Flat, stick to rocks

                Bivalves – clams, oysters and mussles

                                Have two shells

                                Many eyes

                                Commercially important


Annelids – segmented invertebrates (leeches and worms)

                Have alimentary canal

                Polychaetes – many parapodia

                                Locomotion, breathing, and capturing prey

                                Example: Christmas tree worms

                Oligochaetes – few-no parapodia



                                                Blood suckers

                                                Good swimmers

                                                Saliva has anticoagulants

                                                                Skin grafts/reattachments


Round worms – alimentary canal

                Not divided into segments

Nemotodes – no circulatory system

                Trichenella in pork

                Whipworms – parasite

                                Crohn’s – hygene hypothesis

Hookworms – attack intestinal walls and drink blood

                Burrow through tissue to get there



                Have exoskeleton – chitin and protein

                                Must molt to grow

                Open circulatory system

                                Hemolymph bathes organs


                Arachnids – spiders, ticks and scorpions

                                Pedipalps – 12 (6 pairs)

                                                Cephalothorax (fused thorax and head)

                                                Eight legs

                                                2 pairs for other purpose

                                                                Fangs in spiders

                                                                Pincers in scorpions

                                Book lungs


                Myriapods – millipeds and centipedes

                                Jaw-like mandibles

                                Long and thin with many legs



                                Millipedes – vegetarian, 2 legs per segment

                                                Each segment from two that fused

                                Centipedes – carnivorous, 1 leg per segment

                                                Venomous claws on front segment


                                Separate head, thorax and abdomen

                                Six pairs of legs

                                Many have wings (cuticle extensions)

                                Flying, aquatic and terrestrial life forms

                                Most common animal life form


                                                Incomplete metamorphosis

                                                                Adult-like nymph θ adult

                                                                Example:  grasshopper

                                                Complete metamorphosis

                                                                Larvae θ adult

                                                                                Example: caterpillar θ butterfly, maggot θ fly


                                Six winged insect orders to know

1)      Coleoptera – beetles (e.g. scarabs and “ladybugs”)

2)      Dipteral – flies

3)      Hymenoptera – bees and wasps

4)      Lepidoptera - butterflies

5)      Hemiptera – true bugs

6)      Orthoptera – grasshoppers, crickets, locust



                Mostly aquatic

                19 pairs of appendages

                                Walking legs on thorax

                                Appendages on abdomen

                                Can regenerate appendages during molt

                Usually separate sexes

                Gas exchange:  across cuticle  (if small) or with gills (larger body)


Examples to know:

1)      Isopods – mostly marine, also pill bugs

2)      Decapods – lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimp

3)      Copepods – tiny things, part of marine plankton

4)      Barnacles – sessile, usually intertidal zone





                “spiny skin” – usually have bumps or spins

                                Not all (e.g. sand dollar)

                Hard calcium-based plates under skin

                Water vascular system

                                Water pressure for movement of tube feet (how they crawl)

                Bilateral symmetry in young

Most adults are pseudo-radial with central disk

                Exception:  sea cucumbers



                Examples to know

1)      Asteroidea – starfish (name = asteroid-like = star shaped)

2)      Echinodermata – urchins and sand dollars (name means spiny skin…urchin spines)

No arms, but tube feet

3)      Crinoidea – brittle stars, sea lilles, feather stars

4)      Holothuroidea – sea cucumbers

No arms, but tube feet



Chordates (any critter below this line is a chordate)

                Bilaterally symmetrical deuterostomes

                Four traits (in some cases only seen in embryo)

1)      Notochord (flexible rod that helps support body)

2)      Hollow nerve chord (plate of ectoderm that rolls up)

3)      Pharyngeal gill slits/clefts

4)      Muscular tail behind anus

Alimentary canal


Lancelets & tunicates (separate groups)

                Four characteristics of chordates

                Larvae and adult forms with metamorphosis

Adult tunicates (Sea squirts) are sessile

Adult lancets burrow into sand


Agnatha – jawless fish (hagfish and lamprey)


                                Cartilage skull, but no jaws

                                No skeleton, uses notochord for body support



                                Cartilage skeleton

                                Teeth, but no jaws

                                                Gnaws hole in side of fish, sucks blood


Jawed fish

                Better support for teeth

                Lateral line system

                                Reproduction: oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous

                                                (in book with sharks, but there are bony fish with these methods, too)



Chondrichthyans – (sharks, skates, rays)

                                Jawed fish with cartilage skeleton (also called elasmobranchs)

                                Scales covered in dentine

                                                (teeth may be modified scales)

Bony fish – Osteichthys (osteo means “bone”, ichthys means “fish”)

                Have bone skeleton

                Operculum (gill covering)

                Swim bladder


Ray finned fish  - most fish

Lobe finned fish – coelacanth and lungfish

                                                Lungfish lungs (most species have two, not just a modified swim bladder)


                Tetrapods (four limbs)

                                Amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

                                Some ectotherms, some endotherms, some heterotherms


                                Amphibians - ectotherms

                                                Salamanders and newts

                                                Frogs and toads

                                                Caecilians (long worm-like, often blind)

                                                                Apoda (without legs)


                                Reptiles – almost all ectotherms (some sea turtles are heterotherms)

                                                Squamata – lizards and snakes

                                                Chelonian – turtles

                                                Crocodilian – crocodiles, alligators, caiman and gharial


                                Birds (avies)

                                                Almost all have wings with feathers and can fly

                                                                Ratites – ostriches and emus cannot fly

                                                Weight saving structures for flight

                                                                No urinary bladder

                                                                Hollow bones

                                                                One ovary in most species

                                                                                Gonads small if not breeding



                                                Common traits

1)      Hair

2)      Endotherm

3)      Milk  (…and nipples, unless you are a monetreme)

4)      Diaphragm

5)      Heterodont (different kinds of teeth)

6)      live birth (unless you are a monetreme)


Monotremes – platypus and echidna

                Lay eggs

                                                                Milk, but no nipples

                                                                Weird reproductive system

                                                                                Branched vagina/bifurcated penis



                                                                Young born VERY small

                                                                                Why?  Probably to fit down center of three-branch vagina

                                                                                Born helpless, size of jellybean

                                                                                Must finish growing in pouch

                                                                                                Nipples in pouch


If you are not a monotreme or a marsupial, you are a Eutherian (mammal that raises kids in womb, with placenta)



                Primates – humans, apes, monkeys, baboons

                                opposable thumb

                                many with large brain

                                                extended parental care

                KNOW figure 34.41

                Proboscidea: elephants

 (proboscis = nose)

                Sirenia = manatees

                Xenarthra = armadillos

                                Spiny jointed

                Lagomorpha = hares and rabbits

                Carnivore = dogs, bears, cats, weasels

                                Also includes pinnepeds (seals,  sea lions and walrus)

                Artiodactyl = even toed hoofed mammals

                                Think of deer and antilope

                Cetaceans = whales, dolphins and porpoises

                Perissodactyl = odd toed hoofed mammals

                                Think of horses and rhinos

                Chiroptera = bats