Prokaryotes = no nucleus

Extreme conditions: archea

Short generations= rapid evolution

Shapes: cocci, bacilli, spirochetes, micro

Prokaryotes have polysaccharide walls

                In bacteria, that means peptidoglyccans

Three parts of a gram’s stain

Gram positive vs gram negative: amount of peptidoglycans

Antibiotics and peptidoglycans

Capsule: made of

Fimbrae:  pili for sex

Two kinds of pili

Taxis: examples of


Prokaryotes – no membrane bound organelles

1 chromosome + plasmids, no introns

Nucleoid region

Binary fission

Endospores – survive harsh environment

3 factors genetic diversity in prokaryotes =mutation fast repro recombination (sex pili)

Transformation, transduction, conjugation

Phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs, photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoheterotrophs

Obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes

Prokaryotes = nitrogen fixation (some are symbiotes with legumes


Extremehalophiles, extreme thermophiles, methanogens (anaerobes)

gram-negative bacteria include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs

Alpha Proteobacteria –possible ancestor of what organelle

•          : Rhizobium, which forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2

Agrobacterium, which produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic engineering – biotech

Gamma Proteobacteria

•          Legionella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae  

•          Escherichia coli = viral transduction makes pathogenic

Subgroup: Epsilon

Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers


Chlamydias - These bacteria are parasites that live within animal cells

Spirochetes Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, and Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease, are

Cyanobacteria = ancestors of chloroplasts

Gram positive bacteria:  know bacillus anthracis

Know that decomposers are chemoheterotrophs.

Know the three types of symbiosis

Know exotoxins and endotoxins

Be able to explain bioremediation




What are the five supergroups of protists

What do the terms monophyletic and paraphyletic mean?  Which probably applies to protists?

Be able to list and describe the types of asexual and sexual reproduction that different protists can use

Explain the link between cyanobacteria and chloroplasts

What is endosymbiosis?  What is secondary endosymbiosis

What are hydrogenosomes?  Explain the link between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes


Excavate – odd flagella

                Diplomonads – Giardia intestinalis

                Peribasalid – Trichomonas vaginalis – has hydrogenosomes

                Euglenazoans weird rod inside flagella

                                euglenids -   - heterotrophy or autotroph

                                Kinetoplastids - trypanosoma

Chromealveolata – secondary endosymbiosis (of red algae), monophyletic

                Alveolates – sac/space

Dinoflagellates – mixotroph/autotroph phytoplankton – red tide

Apicomplexa – parasite/pathogen – Plasmodium (malaria)

Ciliates – paramecium – micronuclei and conjugation

                Stramenopila – hairy flagella

Diatoms – silica walls, sexual or asexual, phytoplankton

Golden algae – caretinoids, photosynthetic/heterotrophic

Brown algae – “seaweed” multicellular , biggest and most complex

Kelp – thallus, stipe, holdfast, blades

                Rhizarians – monophyletic,


Forams – “tests” and pseudopodia

Radiolarians – tests of silica

Archaeplastida – red algae, green algae, (land plants???)

                Red algae – phycoerythrin, larges of all (kelp)

                Green algae – green chloroplasts – ancestors of modern plants

                                Chlorophytes – mostly fresh water ( volvox), ulva, also in lichen or pink snow


Unikonta – animals and fungi


slime mold – formerly considered fungi, multi or unicellular

                plasmodial slime mold – multicellular to plasmodium (unicellular w/ many nuclei

                cellular slime mold – single cells join to make fruiting body

                                entamoebas – parasites to vertebrates – entameoba histolytica (amebic disentary)



symbionts – examples zooxanthellae and Trichonympha

                parasites – plasmodium

producers - phytoplankton



Seedless Plants


Charophyte algae are probably closest relatives to land plants

Four traits that plants have and charopytes don’t: alternate generations, sporangia, multi-cell gametangea, apical meristems

Bryophytes – mosses, hornworts and liverworts

                Avascular, short, gametophyte is dominant, swimming sperm

Lycophytes – club mosses

Pterophytes – ferns and horsetails

Know purpose of cuticle and microrhizea

What is a sporophyte?  What is a gametophyte?  Which is diploid?  Which is haploid?

Know that Spores are made by meiosis, and gametes by mitosis

What are placental transfer cells.  Where are they found

Where are sporangia found?  What do they make?

What are the two types of gametangia?  Which one is male and which one is female?

Where are apical meristems found?

What is the dominant generation in moss

What are rhizoids, antheridia and archegonium?  Which bryophyte generation are they found in?

What are a foot, seta, and sporangium (capsule and peristome)?  Which generation of bryophyte are they found in?

What type of environment to mosses need to live in?

Give two reasons why mosses must be short

Be able to explain what xylem and phloem do.  How are they related to leaves, roots, and plant height?

Which generation is dominant in all plants except bryophytes?

Be able to describe the gametophyte of a fern

Give the purpose of roots, and those of leaves

What are megaphylles and microphylls

What are sori?  What type of plants have them?  What are Strobili?  What type of plants have them?  What are produced in these structures?

What does it mean to be homosporous?  To be heterosporous?

What are megaspores and microspores?

The dominant plants of the carboniferous period were?


Be able to compare the life cycles of bryophytes (moss), pterophytes (fern), conifers (pine tree), and angiosperms(flower)


Plants with seeds

Seed plants have

1.       Very reduced gametophytes

2.       Heterospory

3.       Ovules

4.       Pollen

5.       seeds

Gymnosperms – naked seed (no flower) =

1.       Ginkophyta = ginko biloba, memory?

2.       Coniferophyta = pines, firs, cedars, junipers

·         good in dry conditions,

·         leaves reduced to “needles” to limit water loss,

·          most common gymnosperm

·         Small cone = male.  Has pollen (microspores containing male gametophyte)

·         Big cone = female.  Contains

·         Know lifecycle

3.       Cycadophyta sago palms, common in Mesozoic era

4.       gnetophyta =ephedra weight loss supplement (dangerous??)

seed = sporophyte embryo + food + protective coating (from integument)………………..derived from entire ovule

where does a seed plant’s gametophyte get nutrients

know the difference in a megaspore and a microspore.  Which one is part of an ovule?

How many layers of integument are present in a gymnosperm ovule?  How many layers are present in an angiosperm ovule

What is the difference between a microspore and a pollen grain

Understand that seed plants do not have swimming sperm

Angiosperm:  flowering plant; usually pollinated by insects, animals, wind


·         Male = stamen (filament + anther)

·         Female = carpel (stigma style ovary)

·         Sepal and petals


·         Ovary (…and maybe other stuff)

o   Embryo sac = female gametophyte (inside ovule)

·         Fruit (protects seeds, aids dispersal)

·         Dry or fleshy

Cross pollination.  What is it, and why do most plants try to prevent it

Angiosperms have DOUBLE FERTILIZATION.  What is it?  What is each sperm used for?

What is endosperm

What are cotyledons

Know lifecycle of flowering plants

Be able to compare monocots and dicots in the following

Number of leaves in the embryo

Pattern of veins in leaves

Arrangement of vascular tissues

Root structure

Pollen style

Number petals and other flower parts

Explain the meaning of bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry


What type of selection created modern crops

Most modern crops are angiosperms.  Give examples

Where do atropine, methol and morophine come from