Prokaryotes = no nucleus
Extreme conditions: archea
Short generations= rapid evolution
Shapes: cocci, bacilli, spirochetes, micro
Prokaryotes have polysaccharide walls
In bacteria, that means peptidoglyccans
Three parts of a grams stain
Gram positive vs gram negative: amount of peptidoglycans
Antibiotics and peptidoglycans
Capsule: made of
Fimbrae: pili for sex
Two kinds of pili
Taxis: examples of
Prokaryotes no membrane bound organelles
1 chromosome + plasmids, no introns
Endospores survive harsh environment
3 factors genetic diversity in prokaryotes =mutation fast repro recombination (sex pili)
Transformation, transduction, conjugation
Phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs, photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoheterotrophs
Obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes
Prokaryotes = nitrogen fixation (some are symbiotes with legumes
Extremehalophiles, extreme thermophiles, methanogens (anaerobes)
gram-negative bacteria include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs
Alpha Proteobacteria possible ancestor of what organelle
: Rhizobium, which forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2
Agrobacterium, which produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic engineering biotech
Legionella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae
Escherichia coli = viral transduction makes pathogenic
Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers
Chlamydias - These bacteria are parasites that live within animal cells
Spirochetes Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, and Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease, are
Cyanobacteria = ancestors of chloroplasts
Gram positive bacteria: know bacillus anthracis
Know that decomposers are chemoheterotrophs.
Know the three types of symbiosis
Know exotoxins and endotoxins
Be able to explain bioremediation
What are the five supergroups of protists
What do the terms monophyletic and paraphyletic mean? Which probably applies to protists?
Be able to list and describe the types of asexual and sexual reproduction that different protists can use
Explain the link between cyanobacteria and chloroplasts
What is endosymbiosis? What is secondary endosymbiosis
What are hydrogenosomes? Explain the link between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes
Excavate odd flagella
Diplomonads Giardia intestinalis
Peribasalid Trichomonas vaginalis has hydrogenosomes
Euglenazoans weird rod inside flagella
euglenids - - heterotrophy or autotroph
Kinetoplastids - trypanosoma
Chromealveolata secondary endosymbiosis (of red algae), monophyletic
Dinoflagellates mixotroph/autotroph phytoplankton red tide
Apicomplexa parasite/pathogen Plasmodium (malaria)
Ciliates paramecium micronuclei and conjugation
Stramenopila hairy flagella
Diatoms silica walls, sexual or asexual, phytoplankton
Golden algae caretinoids, photosynthetic/heterotrophic
Brown algae seaweed multicellular , biggest and most complex
Kelp thallus, stipe, holdfast, blades
Forams tests and pseudopodia
Radiolarians tests of silica
Archaeplastida red algae, green algae, (land plants???)
Red algae phycoerythrin, larges of all (kelp)
Green algae green chloroplasts ancestors of modern plants
Chlorophytes mostly fresh water ( volvox), ulva, also in lichen or pink snow
Unikonta animals and fungi
slime mold formerly considered fungi, multi or unicellular
plasmodial slime mold multicellular to plasmodium (unicellular w/ many nuclei
cellular slime mold single cells join to make fruiting body
entamoebas parasites to vertebrates entameoba histolytica (amebic disentary)
symbionts examples zooxanthellae and Trichonympha
producers - phytoplankton
Charophyte algae are probably closest relatives to land plants
Four traits that plants have and charopytes dont: alternate generations, sporangia, multi-cell gametangea, apical meristems
Bryophytes mosses, hornworts and liverworts
Avascular, short, gametophyte is dominant, swimming sperm
Lycophytes club mosses
Pterophytes ferns and horsetails
Know purpose of cuticle and microrhizea
What is a sporophyte? What is a gametophyte? Which is diploid? Which is haploid?
Know that Spores are made by meiosis, and gametes by mitosis
What are placental transfer cells. Where are they found
Where are sporangia found? What do they make?
What are the two types of gametangia? Which one is male and which one is female?
Where are apical meristems found?
What is the dominant generation in moss
What are rhizoids, antheridia and archegonium? Which bryophyte generation are they found in?
What are a foot, seta, and sporangium (capsule and peristome)? Which generation of bryophyte are they found in?
What type of environment to mosses need to live in?
Give two reasons why mosses must be short
Be able to explain what xylem and phloem do. How are they related to leaves, roots, and plant height?
Which generation is dominant in all plants except bryophytes?
Be able to describe the gametophyte of a fern
Give the purpose of roots, and those of leaves
What are megaphylles and microphylls
What are sori? What type of plants have them? What are Strobili? What type of plants have them? What are produced in these structures?
What does it mean to be homosporous? To be heterosporous?
What are megaspores and microspores?
The dominant plants of the carboniferous period were?
Be able to compare the life cycles of bryophytes (moss), pterophytes (fern), conifers (pine tree), and angiosperms(flower)
Plants with seeds
Seed plants have
1. Very reduced gametophytes
Gymnosperms naked seed (no flower) =
1. Ginkophyta = ginko biloba, memory?
2. Coniferophyta = pines, firs, cedars, junipers
· good in dry conditions,
· leaves reduced to needles to limit water loss,
· most common gymnosperm
· Small cone = male. Has pollen (microspores containing male gametophyte)
· Big cone = female. Contains
· Know lifecycle
3. Cycadophyta sago palms, common in Mesozoic era
4. gnetophyta =ephedra weight loss supplement (dangerous??)
seed = sporophyte embryo + food + protective coating (from integument) ..derived from entire ovule
where does a seed plants gametophyte get nutrients
know the difference in a megaspore and a microspore. Which one is part of an ovule?
How many layers of integument are present in a gymnosperm ovule? How many layers are present in an angiosperm ovule
What is the difference between a microspore and a pollen grain
Understand that seed plants do not have swimming sperm
Angiosperm: flowering plant; usually pollinated by insects, animals, wind
· Male = stamen (filament + anther)
· Female = carpel (stigma style ovary)
· Sepal and petals
· Ovary ( and maybe other stuff)
o Embryo sac = female gametophyte (inside ovule)
· Fruit (protects seeds, aids dispersal)
· Dry or fleshy
Cross pollination. What is it, and why do most plants try to prevent it
Angiosperms have DOUBLE FERTILIZATION. What is it? What is each sperm used for?
What is endosperm
What are cotyledons
Know lifecycle of flowering plants
Be able to compare monocots and dicots in the following
Number of leaves in the embryo
Pattern of veins in leaves
Arrangement of vascular tissues
Number petals and other flower parts
Explain the meaning of bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry
What type of selection created modern crops
Most modern crops are angiosperms. Give examples
Where do atropine, methol and morophine come from