Test 2 study guide


Definitely study this:

What do the terms isotonic, hypertonic an hypotonic mean?

What is turgor pressure?  Under what conditions does it occur?  What type of cells can have turgor pressure?

Be able to explain and give examples of kinetic and potential energy.  Be able to explain what chemical energy is.

What is an endergonic reaction?  What is an exergonic reaction?  Which one is more likely to happen spontaneously?

What is a catalyst?  What is an enzyme?  What does an enzyme do?  How does it do it?

Explain what activation energy is

Be able to identify and know the function of these organelles:  nucleus, rough ER, smooth ER, golgi apparatus, food vesicles, transport vesicles, ribosomes, peroxisomes, vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplasts

What are the parts of a nucleotide

Be able to explain the difference between polar and non-polar molecules.  Which is hydrophilic?  Which can easily pass through the phospholipid bi-layer of a membrane?

How does molecule size affect the ability to cross a membrane

Know the function of microtubules, intermediate fibers and microfiliments.  Which of these would Actin be classified as?

Where are ribosomes located?  What do they do?  Be able to describe their function.

What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?  What is the function of it?  It is a specialized form of what organelle?

What are the three forms of endocytosis?  Which takes in fluids and small particles?  Which takes in large particles?

How does fatty acid saturation affect the fluidity and freezing temperature of membranes?

How does cholesterol affect the fluidity and temperature of membranes?

Explain the difference in active and passive transport in terms of energy and concentration gradients.   Be able to give examples of each type of transport

What is the difference in diffusion and osmosis

What are heterotrophs and autotrophs

What are thermodynamically open and closed systems?  What type of system is a living organism?

Be able to explain what a substrate, promoter, and inhibitor are.  What are the two types of inhibitors?

What is the name of the bulk transport mechanism used to move things OUT of a cell

What is a catabolic reaction?  What is an anabolic reaction?



What molecule is the main carrier of energy within cells

.   In what organelle does photosynthesis happen

What powers ATP synthase?


Where in the chloroplast do we have a high concentration of hydrogen ions?

Where in the mitochondria do we have a high concentration of hydrogen ions?

.   Know the meaning of the terms diffusion & osmosis.  Know when (i.e. under what conditions) they happen?

.   What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?


Non-majors questions you should also be able to answer:


Cells and Their Parts

1.      What, do the following terms mean: cell, multicellular, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cytosol, organelle

2.      Be able to identify and give the purpose of the following: nucleus, nuclear pore, ribosome, mitochondria, cytoplasm, lysosome, smooth ER, rough ER, fesicle, vacuole, golgi apparatus, chloroplast, cell wall, plasmodesmata

3.      What is a phospholipid bilayer?  Which part of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophilic?

4.      What is made by the smooth ER?  What is made by the rough ER?

5.      Which types of organisms have a cell wall?  Which ones have cell walls made of cellulose?  Which ones have cell walls made of chitin?

6.      Which parts of the cytoskeleton are structural?  Which ones are used for propulsion?

7.      Be able to explain the idea of endosymbiosis (pg. 162)

8.      Be able to explain the following types of motion of molecules into or out of the cell: exocytosis, endocytosis, pinocytosis, osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated difusion, active transport, passive transport


1.       Enzymes are usually made of what?  What do enzymes do?  How do they do it?

2.       Are enzymes altered or used up in a reaction?

3.       Be able to name types of potential and kinetic energy

4.       Be able to explain the meaning of these terms:  reactant, product, substrate, catalyst, activation energy, enzyme, denatured,

5.       Are enzymes altered or used up by a reaction

6.       What is a metabolic pathway?  Why are the enzymes in a pathway usually close to each other.  What happens to an enzyme at abnormally high temperature?  What happens to an enzyme at low or high pH numbers?

7.       How do pH, temperature and concentration affect enzyme function?

8.       How do enzymes speed up reactions?