Study Guide for Test 6

Evolution and Ecology


Chapter 17 (with parts of 18, 19 & 20)


  1. How are artificial selection and natural selection similar?  How are they different?
  2. What conditions are required before natural and artificial selection can happen
  3. What are the two things that evolution requires?  Which one is a random process? 
  4. Be able to give examples of crops, flowers, and animals created by artificial selection.
  5. Did the idea of one species giving rise to many exist before Darwin/Wallace?  What did Erasmus Darwin write on this topic?
  6. What Victorian hobby was an important in Darwin forming his ideas?
  7. Be able to explain the difference between the Darwin/Wallace mechanism for change and Lamarck’s explanation
  8. Be able to describe the similarities between Wallace and Darwin’s trips, and their ideas
  9. Be able to explain the three things that must be true for natural selection to occur.
  10. Where does variation come from?
  11. Does natural selection work on genotypes or phenotypes
  12. What phrase did Darwin use in his book instead of the modern word “evolution”
  13. Know the meaning of these terms:  gene pool, evolution, natural selection, artificial selection, gene flow, genetic drift, homologous features, analogous features
  14. Is evolution random?  Can a group of animals become better adapted to their environment? 
  15. Be able to list four ways to modify the gene pool
  16. What are some causes of mutation
  17. What causes gene flow?  What causes genetic drift
  18. What are the two forms of speciation.  Which one happens when populations are in the same place?  Which one happens when they are in different places?
  19. Does convergent evolution create homologous or analogous structures?
  20. What are vestigial organs?
  21. Be able to list some of the intermediate species located in the fossil record
  22. Which types of organisms to scientists believe have the most similar DNA?
  23. How does continental drift affect where species live?


Chapter 23 (with parts of 21 and 22)

1.       Be able to explain or define these terms: ecology, biosphere, biome, rain shadow,

2.       Why do large bodies of water moderate the temperature of nearby land areas?

3.       What is a biome?  What are most terrestrial biomes named for?

4.       What is the difference in an introduced and an invasive species?  Be able to give examples of both that are found here in FL

5.       What is a population?  What are population size and population density? How are populations and communities related? 

6.       Be able to recognize and distinguish between exponential and logistic growth.

7.       When does exponential growth occur?  When does logistic growth occur?  Which of these does the human population most closely resemble?

8.       Explain why two different populations of the same species in different locations can have different growth rates.

9.       What is the carrying capacity?  What usually happens to a population’s growth rate as it approaches the carrying capacity for that population?

10.   What happens to a population if it grows so rapidly that it passes the carrying capacity without slowing to a logistic-type curve?

11.   What is a population cycle? 

12.   How many types of populations are involved in a cycle?

13.   What causes a population cycle?

14.   What is bioaccumulation?  Why did using DDT on mosquitoes affect the number of bald eagles?

15.   What is a community?

16.   What are the two factors used to determine diversity in a community

17.   Why are diverse communities more resistant to disease and pests

18.   What is a producer?  What is a consumer?

19.   What is a trophic level?  What is the highest trophic level in most ecosystems?

20.   Which trophic level will have the highest levels of chemicals that bioaccumulate?

21.   How much of their food energy do most organisms use to build new body parts

22.   Why do most food chains stop at the trophic level of the tertiary or quaternary consumer?

23.   Why would a giant organism like a blue whale feed on tiny little krill that are low on the food chain?

24.   What is an apex predator

25.   What is the difference between a food chain and a food web

26.   What are the three types of symbiosis? 

27.   Which type of symbiosis benefits one organism and has little or no effect on the other organism?

28.   Be able to list several ways that parasites with multiple hosts can increase the chance of spreading from the first host to the second host

29.   What is a niche? 

30.   What is competitive exclusion?

31.   What is niche partitioning?

32.   Give examples of two induced defenses that herbivores can cause in plants

33.   What is the goal of cryptic color (camouflage)  What is the goal of warning coloration

34.   Be able to list the two types of mimicry

35.   Which type of mimicry is a warning?  Which type of mimicry is a bluff?

36.   What happens to an ecosystem if you remove a keystone species?