Study Guide for Test Three

 

Chapter 4 and some additional information that any respectable textbook ought to have. I guess some of it is stuck in chapter 8.

1.       Enzymes are usually made of what?  What do enzymes do?  How do they do it?

2.       Are enzymes altered or used up in a reaction?

3.       Be able to name types of potential and kinetic energy

4.       Be able to explain the meaning of these terms:  reactant, product, substrate, catalyst, activation energy, enzyme, denatured,

5.       Are enzymes altered or used up by a reaction

6.       What is a metabolic pathway?  Why are the enzymes in a pathway usually close to each other.  What happens to an enzyme at abnormally high temperature?  What happens to an enzyme at low or high pH numbers?

7.       How do pH, temperature and concentration affect enzyme function?

8.       How do enzymes speed up reactions?

 

 

 

Chapters 5 and 6

1.       What is metabolism?  Is it higher when you are younger or older

2.       What is G3P

3A.       What are two anabolic that producers can use to make macromolecules? (Hint: One involves sunlight, the other does not)  Which one is more common in most of the ecosystems on earth?

3B.       Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration.  Which one puts CO2 into the air?  Which one takes it from the air?  Which one produces O2? Which one uses O2?

4.       What  are the input molecules (the reactants) for photosynthesis?  What are the outputs?

5.       What  are the input molecules (the reactants) for cellular metabolism?  What are the outputs?

6.       What type of organisms can do photosynthesis? (i.e. by themselves, without symbiosis or stealing or organelles)

7.       What is a catabolic reaction?  What is an anabolic reaction?

8.       What types of organisms can do photosynthesis

9.       Do producers or consumers have mitochondria?  What is the organelle where the last two stages of cellular respiration happen?  Where does the first stage happen

10.   Why does Krebs require oxygen?  Why does oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen?

11.   What molecule is the main carrier of energy within cells

12.   What are NADH and FADH2 used for in the cell?

13.   Which of the three stages of cellular respiration creates the most ATP?

14.   In what organelle does photosynthesis happen

15.   What are the two stages of photosynthesis?  Which one happens in the membrane of the thylacoids?  Which one happens in the stroma

16.   Which stage of photosynthesis makes ATP and NADH?  Which stage breaks water molecules and releases oxygen?

17.   Which stage of photosynthesis does carbon fixation?  Where does it get the energy to do this?  What is the output molecule from this process?

18.   Where do the light reactions happen?  Where does the calvin cycle happen?

19.   Where does glycolysis happen?  Where do the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation happen?

20.   Does photosynthesis use electron transport chains?  Does metabolism use electron transport chains?  What do these chains do with the energy from the electrons?

21.   What powers ATP synthase?

22.   Where in the chloroplast do we have a high concentration of hydrogen ions?

23.   Where in the mitochondria do we have a high concentration of hydrogen ions?

24.   Why is oxygen used as the electron receptor at the end of the electron transport chain?

25.   How many turns of the calvin cycle are needed to make 3GP

26.   know ALL the inputs and outputs of glycolysis.  Where does it happen?  What happens to the pyruvate?

27.   What happens to the high energy electrons released in glycolysis and krebs?  What molecule absorbs those electrons?

28.   What does Oxidative Phosphorylation use electrons for?  What energy carrying molecule donates those electrons?  Where what process gave the electrons to this energy carrier molecule?

29.   Know the meaning of the terms diffusion & osmosis.  Know when (i.e. under what conditions) they happen?

30.   What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?

31. What is RUBISCO? What is its job? What molecule can interefer with doing that job?

32. What is photorespiration, and under what conditions does it usually occur?

33.    C4 and CAM are both water saving strategies that some plants use. Be able to explain HOW they work. Which one involves only opening stomata at night when it is cool? Which one separates the CO2 gathering mesophyll cells from the bundle cells that do carbon fixation?

 

 

 

 Have no fear, well still talk about the cool genetics stuff in chapters 9..were just doing that as part of Test 4.

 

Chapter 9 (the mitosis bits) & Chapter 11 were skipping chapter 10.too much cancer stuff.

1.      What do these terms mean?  chromatin, chromosome, doubled chromosome, chromatid, tetrad, centromere, autosomes, sex chromosomes, homologous pairs, haploid, diploid, n, 1n, 2n, zygote

2.      What are gametes and somatic cells?

3.      Know the order of the stages of mitosis and meiosis

4.      What are the cells made by mitosis used for?  What are the cells made by meiosis used for?

5.      Know what happens to the nucleus, chromosomes, and spindle fibers at each stage of mitosis and meiosis.  Be able to identify drawings of those stages.

6.      What do the terms parent cell and daughter cell mean?

7.      What is cytokinesis?  When does it start?

8.      What does it mean when we say cells spend most of their time in interphase?

9.      What are the three stages of interphase?  What happens in each of them?

10.  can proteins regulate cell division? What is the relationship between regulatory proteins and cancer?

11.  What is a tumor? What makes a tumor benign? What does it mean when we say a tumor is malignant? What does it mean when we say a cancer has metastasized?

12.  Be able to explain how chemotherapy and radiation work, and why they can have side effects like hair loss, nausea and skin lesions.

13.  How do mitosis and meiosis differ?

14.  what does it mean when we say that a sperm is 1n and a normal cell is 2n?

15.  What is binary fission?  What type of organisms use binary fission?  Is it more like mitosis or meiosis?

16.  How are metaphase and anaphase in meiosis I different from metaphase and anaphase of meiosis II

17.  What is non-disjunction?  How can it cause chromosomal abnormalities?

18.  What are sex chromosomes?  What are autosomes?  Which sex chromosomes cause a male offspring?  Which cause a female offspring?

19.  What is crossing over?

20.  How do metaphase and anaphase differ in the first and second division of meiosis

21.  What are polar bodies