Test 2: parts of cells and membrane transport
1. What, do the following terms mean: cell, multicellular, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cytosol, organelle
2. Be able to identify and give the purpose of the following: nucleus, nuclear pore, ribosome, mitochondria, cytoplasm, lysosome, smooth ER, rough ER, fesicle, vacuole, golgi apparatus, chloroplast, cell wall
3. What is a phospholipid bilayer? Which part of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophilic?
4. What is made by the smooth ER? What is made by the rough ER?
5. Which types of organisms have a cell wall? Which ones have cell walls made of cellulose? Which ones have cell walls made of chitin?
6. Which parts of the cytoskeleton are structural? Which ones are used for propulsion?
7. Be able to explain the idea of endosymbiosis (pg. 162)
8. Be able to explain the following types of motion of molecules into or out of the cell: exocytosis, endocytosis, pinocytosis, osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated difusion, active transport, passive transport. Know what these processes are used for and which of them require the cell to use energy.
9. When in life is metabolism highest
10. be able to explain the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
11. be able to identify and list the function of cell organelles
12. understand the relationship between hydrogen ions, acids and pH numbers
13. be able to explain the levels of protein structure and their the importance of their shape. What is an enzyme? How does an enzyme speed up reactions? What happens if it is denatured?
14. Explain what polymers and monomers are.
15. Explain the roles of phospholipids and transport proteins in membrane function
16. Understand what hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions are and how they affect water movement in cells.
17. Be able to identify microtubules, intermediate fibers and microfilaments by description and/or image. Know what each one of them does.
18. Be able to explain the role of motor proteins and microtubules in vesicle transport
19. What are the cis and trans faces of the golgi apparatus?
20. What do the terms plasmolysis, flaccid, turgid and turgor pressure mean?
21. What is osmosis? In what direction does water try to move?
22. How are diffusion rates affected by molecule size, temperature and concentration gradients?
23. How do particle size and charge affect simple diffusion
24. Explain what each of these terms means and how it is applicable to diffusion: Carrier proteins and channels transmembrane proteins